Watershed , it describe the planning that how

Watershed management

 

To Know about watershed management , it
is important to know about watershed .Basically watershed describe an area of
land that contain number of small streams and small rivers that all drain into
a pit or a single large body of water to make a big river, a pond and lake.
First time it is explained by the john Wesley, scientist geographer.

After that watershed management come
into account , it describe the planning that how to use land and water
resources to improve the quality  and
quantity of the water and natural resources with in a watershed. The aim of the
watershed management is to optimizing the use of land , water, biosphere,
forest etc. in an area to limit the drought ,floods, to prevent soil erosion,
to improve water availability and increase agriculture product on a land.

Watershed management helps to bring
about the best possible balance in the environment between natural resources
and human being or other living beings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Importance of
watershed management-

 

·      
To
control the damaging due to runoff- Runoff
happen due to the melting of snow and heavy rainfall .It is very harmful and
disasters because in this situation water don’t get the proper path to flow and
it leads to the landslides types problem which is very dangerous for
environment. Thus watershed management helps in controlling the damage by
runoff. Basically in watershed management water get the proper path to flow .
The rainfall water and the melted water come through the small streams and
channels into the watershed and reduce the chances of damaging due to the
runoff.

·      
It
helps to manage and utilize the runoff water for useful purpose-Watershed
management helps to use the runoff water in proper direction. Water that is
collect into the watershed is flows out from the watershed through a single
outlet into the form of larger river or lake. After that outlet water use for
agriculture purpose .

·      
It
helps to control the pollution of the water-Runoff
from rain water and snow melted water contain large amount of pollution into
the water. Watershed management helps to reduce pollution of water and other
impurities present in the watershed by identifying the different kind of
pollution that are present into the watershed. After that different types of
methods are used to remove that particular impurity.

·      
It
helps in restoration of soil quality-Due
to the heavy runoff the soil losses it quality. But watershed management
reduces the heavy runoff , thus it help to improvement and restoration of soil
quality . And also raised its productivity rate.

·      
It
helps to provide sufficient drinking water-Watershed
management helps to reduce the water pollution . Thus water within in a
watershed ,which is free from all the pollution takes in the use for drinking
purpose. So, watershed management helps to supply and securing of clean and
sufficient drinking water for the people.

·      
It helps to increase
the production level and income of watershed community.

·      
It helps to plant and
animals by producing secondary resources , which will not cause ecological
imbalance.

·      
Watershed
management helps to increase the life time of the downstream dam because
watershed acts as  alternative path for
dams.

·      
By
the use of watershed management method the excess exploitation of resources
become minimized.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factor
on which watershed management depends-

 

·      
Slope
of the watershed-Slope of the watershed
affect the momentum of the runoff . If the slop of watershed is too low then,
the speed f the runoff through streams or channel decreases , its mean water
take too much time to come to watershed .But if the slope of the watershed is
too high then ,the speed of the runoff through streams increases and it acts as
a flood which is dangerous .So ,the slope of watershed should be proper. Basically
slope is calculated as the elevation difference between the end point of the
main flow path divided by the length of the watershed

·      
Amount
of rainfall- Watershed depends upon the
sessional rainfall ,greater the rainfall greater will be the storage of water
in the watershed through stream .And less the rainfall lesser will be the
storage of water in the watershed .so, amount of rainfall affect the flow in
the watershed area and also affect storage of water with in a watershed.

·      
Type
of precipitation-Watershed greatly
depends upon the type of precipitation , which affect the runoff. For example
suppose there is a precipitation A , which occur in the form of rainfall and
starts immediately as surface runoff depending upon the rainfall intensity .
there is a another precipitation B, which in the form of snow.it does not
result in the surface runoff.

·      
Orientation
of the watershed –Orientation of the
watershed affect the hydro cycle of the atmosphere. It also affect the
evaporation and transpiration losses from the any watershed.

·      
Shape-
There are different types of shapes for an watershed .It may be square,
rectangle, polygon shaped, circular 
shaped , triangular etc. If the shape of the watershed is larger then ,
it have higher ability to collect more water for long time ,And more water will
be infiltrate , evaporate or it will be utilize by vegetation. I f the shape of
the watershed is small then, the situation become reversed .The shape of any
land is determine by the geology and weather because it mostly influence the
drainage pattern. The density od any stream and shape affect the rate of
runoff.

·      
Size-
The size of any watershed have important effect on its functions , Sise of the
watershed determine its quantity to water received, retained, and runoff. Any
small watershed is  pronounced by overland
flow ,which is the main contribution to a peak flow. But in big size watershed
there is no over land flow , the stream flow is the main the main thing which
determine peak flow.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Watershed
development in india

 

For India watershed is
not a new concept .If we saw in history of India, we will find that   people of India already adapted it by living
along the riverbank , storing and managing rainfall , runoff and steam flow.
So, it were not the new thing for Indians but it is necessary to modified it
for benefit of the mankind.

To accelerate the
development of India ,Indian government started to adopt all the programs which
was based in the watershed management approach. In 1980s government started
decision about watershed but real work started in 1995. The focus of all the
adopted programs was on the micro-watersheds. From here it took the popularity
all over the world. And the number of community based project for micro
watershed increases.

Basically all these
project based on the rainfall and runoff harvesting schemes. These schemes
contains a number of works like, building small dams and ground water recharge
structure etc. But we know the real value of these projects when they started
these projects in rural areas.it was a very big step toward the development of
rural area. 

 

 

Programs
run by Indian government towards watershed management-

 

·      
PIME
MINISTAR KRISHI SINCHAYEE YOJNA (WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT) OR
(WDC-PMKSY)

 

The main objective of
this program was to maintained  the
ecological balance by harnessing , conserving and increase the vegetation
.After some time when the result of this program declare ,it was impressive .
It helps to prevent the soil erosion . it helps to regenerate of natural
vegetation , rainwater harvesting and recharge the ground water table.

 

·      
NEERANCHAL
WATERSHED PROGRAM

 

NEERANCHAL is a world
bank assisted national watershed management project. It is started  to give strength and provides the technical
assistance to the watershed component of WDC-PMKSY. This program is implemented
in 9 states of India.

 

 

NAME OF THE WATERSHEDS
IN INDIA-

 

·      
HIMALAYAN
RANGE WITH ITS KARAKORAM BRANCH-NORTH

·      
VINDHYAN
AND SATPURA RANGES-CENTRAL INDIA

·      
SAHAYADRI
OR WESTERN GHATS-WEST COAST