The This impacted Scotland’s history. As stated in

The first records of Scotland were unveiled by Romans. During AD 81, Governor of Roman Province of Britain conquered Southern Scotland. As stated in Scotland A Concise History, Scotland never became a part of the Roman Empire. During AD 121, Emperor Hadrian built a wall from Solway to Tyne known as Hadrian’s Wall to mark their territory. After 20 years, Lollius Urbicus built his wall from Forth to Clyde known as the Antonine Wall (MacLean, 2012). Saxon pirates attacked across the North Sea, which caused the Romans to flee and abandon their original plan of conquering Scotland. Over the years, Scotland was split into four different England invaded the Scots. The Scots During 1314, Scotland and the English went to war. This war lasted over 14 years until the English grew tired of the war. As stated in the book, “…in May 1328 a Treaty of Peace between the two countries was signed at Northampton, recognizing Scotland as an independent kingdom and Robert Bruce as her King” (MacLean, 44). It was due to this war that Robert Bruce was looked up to and seen as a Scottish hero for uniting his people. During 1558, Queen Mary married Dauphin of France. This brought both Scotland and France closer. Tragedy arose during the year 1560, Marie de Guise passed away. This impacted Scotland’s history. As stated in the book, “the Treaty of Edinburgh recognized Elizabeth as Queen of England and provided for the withdrawal from Scotland” (MacLean, 93). This ended the Auld Alliance and Protestantism was ensured in Scotland. This affected Scotland because most Scottish people were Catholics. In 1688, the first Jacobites uprising started. Highlanders who remained loyal to their monarch, Stuart’s Royal House, were known as Jacobites. They regarded James Edward as their King. It all started when William of Orange, “a devious, unscrupulous man” (MacLean, 139), arrived in England with his army. This quickly fired up tension. Although the Jacobites were defeated, they were vigorously determined to continue to fight (MacLean, 2012).As retaliation, The English caused the remarkable event of the Massacre of Glencoe in 1693. The government offered protection and security to chiefs who took the oath of Allegiance to King William before January 1st, but MacIan MacDonald and MacDonell of Glengarry delayed taking the oath until January 6th due to weather conditions. King William saw this as an opportunity to make an example of a Jacobite attack and take control of the Highlands. He chose MacIan as his victim. King William sent Captain Robert and his troops from the Earl of Argyll to Glencoe to punish their military and try to get rid of them. Robert and his troops were well received by the Captain Robert Campbell of After this horrible event, the Darien Scheme occured. The English Navigation Act made it difficult for Scottish traders to trade overseas to countries such as East India and Africa. They readdressed the problem by helping to found the Bank of England and giving North London a new water supply. This helped pass an Act that gave Scotland the opportunity to trade overseas. On July 1698, William Paterson and three ships with 1,200 emigrants set sail to William disapproved of this project, and was seeking to close an alliance with Spain. Once they reach Darien, two more groups of settlers set sail without first hearing news on how the first expedition went. By AD 1699, a disease, pestilence, had nearly killed a quarter of the settlers in the first expedition. The rest of the members suffered from starvation. On their way back home, many died from a fever. The other two Darien expeditions suffered from similar illnesses. doneFor years, the Jacobites continued to fight and try to get as much support from other villages as possible with Prince Charles as their chief. In one of their many battles, the Jacobites many rejected to join him. For instance, one of his many stops was in Glens of Morar. the English in the great battle known as the Battle of Culloden. During 1746, Charles Edward Stuart’s army began their march to the north. Lord George Murray, who structured and strategized the Prince Charles watched his troops get killed in tears (MacLean, 2012). Cumberland won the Battle of Culloden thanks to his advisers, who Skye and back to Mainland. Throughout his journey, he met many people who looked up to him. It was all over when he After the battle of Culloden, life, culture and its people in Scotland changed. Surviving Jacobites and fugitives of war” (MacLean, 182). Most Jacobite leaders The Jacobite Uprising and The 45 impacted Scotland and its residents. For a while, Scotland produced tobacco and traded it. During the time, linen of political self-expression. Scottish people felt hopeless. It wasn’t until the eighteenth century, that Robert Burns and Walter Scott help the Scots regain their confidence, respect, and a history that the Scots could be proud of. During 1832, the Scottish Reform Bill gave Scottish people the opportunity to once again get involved in politics. loyalty to the same monarch, common victories, common sacrifices…. many of the old differences between Scotland and England were beginning to disappear” (MacLean, 207). Regardless of what occurred in the past, Scotland’s history