Introduction to successfully reach and be able to

Introduction For decades humans have been considering the efficacy of space travel and what space could mean as the next frontier for humans as a whole, with authors as early as 1974 writing about the potential for interstellar travel with the technology at the time. However, as addressed by author Rayna Elizabeth Slobodian, there has been a recent explosion in the popularity among citizens and scientists alike to attempt the colonization of Mars due to a claimed desire to further research about the origin of life on our planet. This popularity has been the birth of a plethora of plans aimed to minimize the risk of human life in the mission to colonize Mars as much as possible, with plans like the “Phobos Scenario” coming to the forefront of popularity. With this popularity going around there lies the questions of how humans plan to reach Mars, how they plan on building settlements once they reach the Red Planet, and how they are going to manage the concept of sovereignty over real-estate.Power Sources Perspective There are a series of necessary technological innovations that need to be made in order for humans to successfully reach and be able to colonize Mars. With one of the main concerns for the colonization of Mars being the lack of sufficient power necessary to complete the voyage, one of the main series of experimentation is focused on what innovations can be made to create sources of abundant energy and what innovations can be made to make this energy more efficient in our flight systems. It is said that there is a new model for propellants in the making that will be used to support the propulsion and power systems for Mars-bound rockets, which would allow potential settlers to reach Mars without their rockets running out of power on the journey. As written by Professor emeritus of physics from the University of Illinois, George H. Miley and Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Design Engineering at Helwan University in Cairo, there are scientists working on creating a “distributed power system” which would rely on the use of “fusion devices… and proton reaction cells.” And in addition to the proposed innovations to the power systems, their innovations are proposed to help maximize the efficiency of the propulsion systems as well, with Italian physicist Giovanni Bignami and international economist Andrea Sommariva discuss promising propositions for the propulsion systems including chemical, nuclear, thermonuclear, and nuclear-electric propulsions. It is proposed that once these innovations are set in place that it will be well within human capabilities to send humans to Mars.Settlement Building Perspective With the large amounts of research and experimentation going into systems which would enable humans to reach Mars, there is an equal amount of research going into solving the matter of how settlements are going to be built once there are settlers ready. Scientists have been going about this through the use of rovers on the surface of Mars,  include the FIDO, SRR, ATE and RWC rovers all of which work together to provide a significant amount of needed information on Mars.The FIDO rover offering the ability to allow long distance “Mars surface science missions”, and the SRR rover works in complement with the FIDO rover, allowing for “small object pick-up, handling and precision terminal docking” meaning that these two rovers together allow for scientists to test the surface of the planet and return the materials back to Earth for further testing. The ATE rover has the ability for “on-board reconfiguration of rover geometry” meaning that the ATE rover can adapt the rovers to the changing terrain on Mars. And the RWC boasting the ability of “coordinated control of two rovers” which would allow for easier transport of large payloads, an activity highly possible in the future of rover colonies on Mars. Paired with these already existing rovers, the Phobos Scenario comes into play. Sponsored by the Mars Foundation, authors Kordell, Fitzgerald and Ferrini write a mission plan for the creation of settlements on Mars, which involves an indirect settlement of the planet Mars, first creating an outpost on the Martian moon of Phobos to aid the settlement of the red planet. They propose a five-phase mission plan for the best course of action in order to “minimize the risk to human life” on the mission for one-way manned expeditions to Mars, starting with a minimally staffed crew to set up an outpost on Phobos from which they would operate rovers on the surface of Mars, setting up a base to be pre-established for the initial settlers. Sovereignty Perspective Currently, there is a treaty in place, The Outer Space Treaty which disallows any country from claiming sovereignty over any celestial body or real estate on said celestial bodies. Holding a PhD in Meteorology and astrobiology from Penn State, Dr. Jacob Haqq-Misra works as a research scientist with the Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, working there on a paper as an advisor to BMSIS Young Scientist Program participant Sara Bruhns regarding a practical way of dealing with this matter,  Claiming that the most efficient means to this would be to adopt a “‘bounded first possession’ model with mandatory planetary perks” with colonization parties able to claim small zones of martian land for economic purposes whilst refraining from claiming sovereignty over it. All colonists would remain under the jurisdiction of their host nation, however, all disputes would be settled diplomatically or through a “temporary tribunal system composed of representatives from other Mars colonies”. With an administrative body proposed in the form of a “Mars Secretariat” that would be granted the limited power to ease the progress of communication between groups.The Limitations While most scientists agree that the mission to Mars is entirely within our grasp, there are those who disagree and claim that the current mission expectations are not feasible. Nasa Systems Engineer Sydney Do writes this analysis on the feasibility of the current Mars One mission plan. Upon in-depth analysis of the mission plan, Do claims that the plan, as it is outlined, makes the mission not possible for 4 reasons; the required technologies imperative to the success of the mission are not currently available as they are claimed to be by Mars One. Secondly, the current area dedicated to crop growth would prove insufficient to feed the number of people they plan to send to the colony. Tertiarily, to increase the area for crop growth would lead to atmospheric imbalances that the current technology in the possession of the colonists would be unable to handle. And the quaternary reason for the infeasibility of the Mars One mission is due to the fact that the number of materials required for the mission would need “13 Falcon heavy launchers” to ship everything, which is over double the number the Mars One mission had allotted for.The Recommendations Albeit necessary to explore the social-cultural perspective as well other perspectives, given the innovation, settlement and sovereignty perspectives as well as their limitations, it is can be analyzed that it is definitely possible for there to be travel through space as well as colonization on other planets such as Mars. Although there is some discrepancy between scientists as to the necessary materials and innovations required, most scientists agree that it is within our bounds to travel to and colonize Mars, with permanent colonies estimated in the next couple decades. Given this analysis, it is recommended that the current mission plan is updated to account for atmospheric imbalances caused by crop growth changes as well as the number of transport ships required to ship the required amount of materials.