the past decades organizations performed their marketing activities by
communicating with the customer using advertisements. This strategy was
beneficial for firms in the era of low competitions. In the recent times
conditions for the marketing have changed abruptly.
In conventional marketing
techniques the marketers use advertisements, reference group etc. The most
important ornament in transmitting a message process is advertising. The
problems in the usage of this tool are as follows: the increase in the number
of critics about advertisement (Kaikati, J., & Kaikati, 2008) the consumers having
serious doubts to reliability (Weisberg , Pfleiger, &
a previous feeling of being deceived causes a negative attitude to all other
advertisements (Darke & Ritichi, 2000) (Calfee &
and an unconscious reluctance and feeling of discomfort to the brand logo in
the consumer persuasion process (Texeria.T, 2012).In addition, because of excessive advertisement
costs, and more educated consumers the use of technological tools in order to
avoid the commercial messages sent by firms. The consumers have found ways to
soothe themselves (Patty & Andrew, 2008), (Martin & Smith, 2008) this has caused
firms to look for alternative methods to persuade consumers without disturbing
them (Kuhn, Hume, & Love, 2010). As a contrary
approach, nonconventional 4marketing is being channelized. In this paradigm covert
marketing is used. In this technique marketers don’t disclose their involvement
to avoid the consumer’s negative attitudes towards advertisements. (Milne, Shalini, & Andrew, 2008). Covert marketing,
is a strategy, in which there are no direct vocal and written messages (Milewicz & Herbig, 1997) and the nature of
the communication is not explicit to the consumers (Cambell, Mohr, & Verlegh, 2012) and it has
advantages for the solutions of the problems
Review of the Literature
For making a
purchase decision and assessing goods and services, consumer performance be the
progression of obtaining information (Moutinho, Ballantyne, & Rate,
This method contains searching for data, substitutes, appraisal, buying,
consuming and arranging of products and facilities (Blackwell, Miniard, & Engel, 2006). Consumer attitude
is influenced by an extensive variety of both personal and objective
This unit will
explain characteristics of consumer behavior that linked to the research
purposes, with a solid emphasis on decision making procedure concerning
determined to purchase which triggered by a covert marketing. According to this
method “few marketing and non-marketing actions creates incentives which
directs consumer to consumer dark box and eventually reason purchase decision” (Kotler & Keller, 2011).
Different Names of Covert Marketing
marketing has lots of names as secrete, under the radar, masked, bell, bate,
hidden marketing. It is method of product settlement technique. (Kaikati, J.,
& Kaikati, 2008), (Martin & Smith, 2008), (Nabenzahl
& Jaffe, 1998).
Covert marketing explained “as firms marketing actions whereby consumers
believe that the activities are not those of firm.” (Milne, Shalini, & Andrew, 2008).
marketing has types. The first type is called as “Mole marketing”; when the
dealers try to get, the possible consumers displaying them a familiar message
through unusual ways. When customers are searching the web data these practices
are applied in the ad-ware on the customer’s computer by which advertising
message will be send to the consumer. Second type is “mental marketing”. This
refers to the messages that are not intentionally apparent but still influence
the consumer behavior towards product. (Lindstrom, 2005). In “Mole Marketing” pictures are
creatively added. These are known as “Three M’s” of Covert marketing (Kisielius & Sternthal, 1987).
Covert Marketing Using Brand Placement
marketing is well competent foundation of consciousness, freedom of choice,
modification and establishes the applied use in the movies which increases the
purchase intention for product (Huan & Audrey, 2012). So, Marketers and
promoters must generate advanced advertising practices or used novel methods of
promotion to inspire customer’s mind in different ways (Kiran, Majumdar, & Kishore, 2012).
Purpose of Product Placement Using Covert Marketing
purpose of product placement is to enhance the value of the product so that
customer can buy the product either by using covert marketing method or overt
marketing methods. (William, K., Petrosky, Hernandez, & Page, 2011) described many donating purposes of product
placement in the entertaining manufacturing e.g. attaining projecting audience
experience, consideration, deep concentration, prominence, maximizing brand
consciousness increasing brand connection, improve perceived excellence of
showed product, increase customer memory and recall, generating prompt
appreciation in the media vehicle and the purchase intention; varying consumers’
behavior; Changing viewers determined
and purchase attitude; producing interpretation on brand in the service of
brand; and endorses the consumers’ attitude in the direction of practical
involvement of brand (p 5-6).
many cases audience is fully recognized that they are exposed to the commercial
activities, and the purpose is to develop brand consciousness through product
placement. These kinds of happenings that disclose the true promoter are not
measured stealth marketing. Silent messages are the most commonly used method
of transporting product messages. Organizations are creating connections with
producers to connect their product message along with the writing of TV show or
drama (Goodman, 2006) According to Smit et.al (2009) explanations of product
placement in TV shows and movies can be to advance a genuineness in a scene.
commonly the products have publicity goals. So, the products are not seemed to
be advertising. The objectives are to create trend impacts of product and
transfers a message. It can be used in scripted or planned and unscripted or
unplanned TV shows (Goodman, 2006) Product placement is not only focused to the
entertainment industry, but also growing through new media.
Covert Marketing through Movies
(Alain & Francis, 2012) Have specified that
there are three main reasons that marketers use for product placement.
Initially, watching movies is a vastly focused action. It assured extreme level
of customer consideration because there was relaxed seating setting and low
level of noise. Moreover, successful movies have many viewers who are the
focused audience with competence. Lastly, insertion a product in movies is a
non-attacking, ordinary and delicate way of going into marketing of products.
It has been watched that Marketers initially, focused on placement of goods and
avoid the consumer feedback for it.
response cannot be realized whether happy, sad or excited. Previous research
has exposed that the kind of placement (subtle or prominent) and reappearance
(low or sensible) does affect the decision of product purchase. Subtle
placement has constructive effect whereas reappearance of projecting products
has a negative consequence as specified by (Homer, 2009).
is the main factor that found in many brand equity models. Usually considering,
awareness and intellectual/effective responses are linked to the situations. It
is not compulsory that awareness related to understanding the idea. Awareness
mainly focused on the internal and external events (Mokhtaran, 2016). It is the strength of brand in the
cognition of the customer. Awareness can
be measured in many ways that enable the consumer to recall the brand opening
from acknowledgement (involvement to the brand) to recall (what is understandable
about the brand), to the primary in mind (first appearance in the
concentration) and lastly to supremacy (Chen, 2012). It enables the
individual to recall the brand though brand awareness contains unfinished knowledge
about the product. It is the strength of brand in the cognition of the
customer. Awareness can be measured in
many ways that enable the consumer to recall the brand opening from
acknowledgement (involvement to the brand) to recall (what is understandable
about the brand), to the primary in mind (first appearance in the
concentration) and lastly to supremacy (Chen, 2012).
Proposed Research Model:
Data will be collected
with the help of adapted questionnaire.
Unit of Analysis:
Unit of Analysis in
this research will be Individual.
Simple Random sampling
technique will be used.
Sample Size will be
selected on the basis of
SPSS 20.0 Version
Structural Equation Modelling
Sir Kindly suggest me appropriate title for this….