Implementation is achieving ‘gender equality’. Considering a few

Implementation
of gender budgeting globally:

Globally, gender
budgeting has been recognized as a key initiative to address gender inequality
across countries. One of the SGDs (Sustainable Development Goals), a collection
of 17 goals set by UN as an agenda for development by 2030, is achieving ‘gender
equality’. Considering a few examples of countries and regions that have
successfully implemented gender budgeting programs can help us in learning how
similar programs can be executed in India, especially in the smart cities
context:

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Gender
budgeting by country:

Developed
Countries:

Belgium:
Belgium’s foray into gender budgeting began when it held a conference in 2001
titled “Strengthening economic and
financial governance: toward gender responsive budgeting”. This conference
gave rise to a number of gender budget initiatives across the European Union.
Following this, Belgium launched a pilot study to explore the feasibility of
gender budgeting within all government services and activities.

This study paved the way
for legislation which mandated gender budgeting responsibilities. The following
provisions under the law were implemented:

¨     
Gender
Note:
This requires the government to quantify budgetary allocations of each ministry
to the attainment of gender equality objectives specified at the beginning of
the government’s term.

¨     
Gender
Test:
The government is also required to measure the differential gender-wise impact
of all legislative programs.

Australia:
Australia pioneered gender budgeting by introducing it at a national level in
1983-84. The policies were introduced in 3 phases of the government. A gender
budgeting framework was created which was then extended to states and territory
governments. A women’s budget statement was also created which was responsible
for assessing the sex-disaggregated budgetary impacts.

Government conducted
gender budgeting activities through an analytical framework to classify public
expenditure into the following categories:

Category 1: Programs that
specifically targeted women

Category
2:
Programs that promote equal representation of women and men

Category
3:
Mainstream programs with components where gender might be relevant

 

 

 

Emerging Markets

Albania: Albania followed the model adopted
originally by Austria and created a legal basis for gender responsive budgeting
as a part of its comprehensive budget reform process. In 2005, the Integrated
Planning System was introduced, a framework to ensure that the core policies
developed by the government functioned in an integrated manner.

The legal basis provided for a number of actions to be taken in the preparation
of the medium-term budget:

 

Identification
of gender equality objectives with targeted outcomes and indicators

¨     
-Setting
of gender equality criteria

¨     
-Alignment
of gender budgeting with the National Strategy on Gender Equality

¨     
-Ministerial
responsibilities for implementation

¨     
-Strategy
to roll out gender budgeting across all line ministries by 2013

 

Philippines: Gender responsive budget policies started in
Philippines at the national level in 1995 with the introduction of GAD (Gender
And Development) budget. The GAD budget made a provision of earmarking at least
5% of all department spending on programs for women. Since a minimum spending
requirement led to misallocation of resources, the 5% requirement was later
made flexible so that spending could be streamlined towards effective programs
alone.

The GAD budget implementation led to annual budget plans across all government
departments. Philippine Commission on Women was created in 1995 as well to
monitor compliance of ongoing gender budgeting efforts. This program also led
to an improvement in sex-disaggregated data collection and reporting.

 

Learnings from the globally implemented gender budgeting
programs:

Ø 
Legal basis: Most
countries with gender budgeting programs have a legal basis. This has helped in
implementation and accountability of the programs.

 

Ø 
Analysis across the budget cycle: Most countries follow a system of ex ante
and ex post gender impact assessments. A forecast based as well as a results
based approach indicates the continuous assessment of impact across the entire
budget cycle.

 

Ø 
Broad application: Gender
budgeting is applied in a variety of budgetary proposals and expenditure
planning. Most countries categorize their expenditures and this helps in
planning their spending accordingly.

 

Ø 
Coordinated approach: Countries
that have successfully implemented gender budgeting in their policies and
programs have achieved a high degree of coordination across various govt.
departments at all levels (Centre, State and Regional).

 

 

 

 

Gender Budgeting in
Smart City Mission

 

Following
are the few areas where gender budgeting can be implemented in the Smart City
Mission:

 

¨      Job creation:

 

With the
development of smart cities, the area earmarked for development is bound to
have an impact on the livelihood of the local villagers and the neighbouring
communities. Smart City Mission can focus on creating caretaking jobs in
hospitals, municipality and training the women in modern technological skills
in various fields. The job creation can also focus on the migrant women from
the deprived sections of society and enable them to form women co-operative
societies and self-help groups that are already a success in the rural
India.    

 

¨      Developing self-sufficiency:

 

Women associated
under MUDRA scheme should be given special considerations and ways to integrate
their ventures with the Smart City Mission can be gauged. Training facilities
for making their ventures efficient and integration of the same in the grand
scheme needs to be considered. It needs to be ensured that there is one stop guidance
centre for start-ups where the knowledge transfer regarding, licensing,
financing, advertising, marketing, branding, standardization etc. takes place.
Job oriented training and counselling units can be set up to further develop
skill of women. Special economic zones can be created with facilities like
healthcare, sanitation and childcare for women entrepreneurs. Dedicated
marketplace or haats for sale of products manufactured by women should also be
considered.

 

¨      Exposure to IT and ICT

 

Since Information
Control Technology will be an integral concept in the smart cities, it is
imperative that women should be given exposure to the Information Technology. For
this, training facilities can be set up to provide digital literacy. Basic computer
training for women of all ages (adolescents, middle-aged women and older women)
should be the first step towards the proper implementation of this plan. Training
regarding the use of e-commerce can be given. Complaint and grievance redressal
through IT can be utilized. Basic exposure to ICT need to be slowly integrated
in their day to day lives so that the transition becomes smoother.

 

 

¨      Involvement in Decision Making:

 

Decision-making is
one of the key aspects where women need to be involved. The self-help group
representative, Slum Committee group representatives, senior citizen
representatives and other women group representative need to be identified and
involved in the decision processes.

 

 

Municipalities and
civic bodies are some of the areas that could really benefit from the
involvement of women. Technology, engineering, mathematics field and scientific
research are other few areas where the representation of women needs to be
factored in the decision-making roles of their respective stem bodies. Policy-making
and city planning are the areas where the equal representations of women
councillors need to be achieved to reduce the gender gap. As a starting point, Smart
City mission has its own review committees where the representation of women
candidates will enable the trickle-down effect of involvement of women in
decision-making policies that will get followed.

 

¨      Infrastructure development:

 

Infrastructure
should be developed keeping in mind the needs of women. A starting point for
this could be development of waste management system capable of handling
medical waste and disposal of sanitary napkins. Also for the overall
development of girls there should be construction of sports ground and
facilities especially for girls and women. To reduce the stress and to keep
them mentally fit there should be rejuvenation centres made for girls and women
of all ages.

¨      Construction of houses:

 

This
is another area where gender budgeting can be incorporated in smart city
mission. Keeping in mind the needs and safety of women, there should be houses
made available to single women, working women et.c. at reasonable prices. Apart
from regular housing there can be a system of short stay homes that can be
dedicated to provide shelter for women in need. Also such homes could also be
developed at areas such as railway stations. This would help reduce the crime
rates towards women. Property dealers should be given incentives for providing
affordable houses to single woman.

¨      Grievance handling system:

 

There
should be a 24*7 grievance handling team dedicated to issues registered by
women. Also the performance of this team should be regularly monitored so as to
ensure its efficiency.

 

¨      Women Safety:

 

A
city cannot be smart unless its women are safe. Several steps need to be taken in
this direction. There should be special training of police personals on
handling of women related issues. Also there should be fast track courts
dedicated for women. There could also be development of women only cab services
with women drivers. Cases of female foeticide and infanticide should be brought
to notice and dealt with severely.

There
should be installation of proper street lights as well as cctv cameras on all
roads. Apart from this women safety apps such as Safetipin should be developed and
such apps should be incorporate with local police.