Dr. Priyanka MishraGlobal Institute of Technology, Jaipur+91 9460929966 [email protected] kumarGlobal Institute of Technology, Jaipur+91 [email protected] AshuGlobal Institute of Technology, Jaipur+91 [email protected] of Thing (IoT) has been a considerable attention from last few years. The paper is an elementary survey of IoT application areas, security and privacy issues, supporting tools and standardization techniques that an end user keeps in mind while designing an IoT device.Keywords: IoT, security, privacy, standardization1. INTRODUCTIONIn last decay, IoT has become trending through representative application (e.g. intelligent transportation ,green house monitoring, telemedicine monitoring). The term internet of things refers to the network of physical devices, machine, home appliance, vehicles and other item which embedded with network and electronics, that put up the data from their sensors to the cloud and other structural representative software through a network. The IoT allows to sense or remotely access the object through network infrastructure. That give us sophisticated technology between physical world and computer system and it improve efficiency, accuracy and instance data deliver through network parameter. The term “Thing” in the IoT refers to the wide variety of devices like camera streaming and control, automobile with built in sensors, biochip, DNA analysis . Legal scholars suggest regarding “Things” as an “inextricably mixture of hardware, software, data & service”. The word “The internet of things” was proposed by Kelvin Ashton of Procter & Gamble (P & G), later MIT’s Auto – ID center in 1999 (Perera et al. , 2013).2. EVOLUTIONBefore doing investigation of the IoT in depth, it is worthwhile to know the evolution of the internet. In the late 1960s the computer communication between two computer was made possible through a computer network. Later in 1980s , the TCP/IP stack comes in the light. After that commercial use of the internet came. Later the World Wide Web (WWW) became more popular in 1991 which help internet to gain more popularity and rapid growth. After uses of WWW, user went more forwarded and connect internet to mobile and form mobile internet. Later on the invention of internet, the next step to connect objectaround us to each other (e.g. M2M) and interchange data via internet.IoT helps in creating the world where all object may easily connect to each other via Internet. The final goal is to create “a better world for human being” where object around us know what we like and what we need, and they act accordingly without less human interaction(Palattella et al. , 2012).By the mid of 1990s , web servers were added in the embedded product. These manufacturers were rapidly integrating internet connected system into the high value asset tracks and fleet management. They liked it for more than 15 years. However, it is getting easier to integrate M2M machine system as more powerful processor are incorporated into the end nodes (Vermesan et al. , 2012). These processors support high level operating systems.Fig. 1 Evolution of Internet of Things3. APPLICATIONSLater in 2010, a survey was done by IOT-I project that identified IoT’s application (Vermesan et al. , 2012). These applications were grouped in 14 domains. These are: transport, smart home (Bing et al. , 2011), smart city (Liu & Yang, 2011), lifestyle, retail, agriculture, smart factory, supplychain, emergency, health care (Zhao et al. , 2011) and energy. Our survey is based on 270 responses from 31 countries.3.1. IoT IN MEDICAL APPLICATIONDue to rapid growth of population and aging, IoT is arising of challenges to equally serve the health treatment. Since, many rural areas has no health care center. they usually suffer from big problem regarding their health issue.? There is a serious shortage problem with medical staff, specially in rural area, lack of medical instrument kit, low level of treatment.? Inadequate disease prevention & early detection capability.? The imperfect diseases prevention system cannot meet the national strategy requirements to safeguard the health of the citizen becoming heavy burden on economy, individuals, families and state.To overcome these issue, remote monitoring & management platform of healthcare and information (RMMO-HI) (Zhao et al. , 2011) can easily monitor and manage rural lifestyle diseases. Hence, IoT can easily prevent from these disease.Fig 2. Framework of healthcare serviceRegardless of restrictions of location, timeand human activity state, RMMP-HI cancollect the body medical information timelythrough variety of sensors which are loadedin the human body. These informative datasent to the nearby data sharing center wheredoctors can easily handle more than onearea of people at one place. It also doanalysis of these data and notify them in realtime , when suspicious result is found. It isalso useful to maintain the nation record ofpeople medical information for higherresearch and development in medical field.Body medical sensors are responsible forregister and delete, constituting MedicalBody Area Network (MBAN) automatically(Zhao et al. , 2011). As shown in Fig. 2,short-range wireless communicationsensors module can easily transmit humaninformation to mobile phone or homegateway. This medical information isuploaded to datacenter and processingtimely. After that, the important result will besend back to the respective person. First-aidnotification is delivered to nearby health carecenter and then they deliver emergencyservice to the patient.3.2. IoT IN SMART HOMEIn recent years, people have higherand higher requirement not only onthe automation for information ofhousing and accommodation, butalso on the flexible control of household appliance and the accessibilityof acquiring the external informationalong with the rapid development ofnetwork technology, communicationtechnology and for meeting the needof the “Well-off Society” (Bing et al. ,2011). Thus, a well improved smarthome network is in demand toestablish. in the smart home system,so that home life becomes morecomfortable, safer, and effectivethrough the overall management. Asmart home network is shown inFig.3.At present, all kind of low transmission ratedata such as sensors, lighting, entranceguard, and equipment switch with a smalldata capacity have been maturely monitoredand controlled through existing zigbeeFig. 3: A Smart Home Networktechnology solution. However, there havebeen no related research on the collectionand the transmission solution of the voice,image and video data. In most relatedresearch at home and abroad, theadvantage of applying zigbee technology to smart home network have been proven. In the domestic furniture system the application of the traditional sensors such as temperature, humidity, gas, smoke and CMOS camera , the collection of image information in the home network is mainly researched. The different control methods such as relay control, infrared control, serial port control and EIB control are mainly discussed in term of network structure. The network structure is designed as a star structure in most researches.4. SECURITY IN IoTThe information security and privacy may be categories with some properties like identification, confidentiality, integrity and undesirability. Different from other technology, IoT deals with our private data such as health information, home camera surveillance , home light system etc. Thus security is at higher priority in availability and dependability of IoT devices.4.1 SECURE ARCHRTECTUREIoT have been categorized in four key layers (Gang et al. , 2011). The support layer gives the support platform for the application layer as shown in Fig. 4.Fig.4.Security ArchitectureThrough this support platform all data will be organized through network grid and cloud. It combines application layer upward and network layer downward. The terminal level is application layer which is at the top most of the IoT security architecture . This layer helps user to customize services according to their need. User can access internet of things through application layer interface using television,, personal computer or mobile device.4.2 SECURITY AND PRIVACY ISSUESInternet of things is a virtual network between real world and computer with real-time interaction. Initial stage of development of IoT is M2M, having deployment contexts and subscription. Unapproachable operation is done without human interaction by the wireless area network (WAN) or WLAN. Due to improvements in social efficiency new concerns of security and privacy breach started arising (Palattella et al. , 2012) shown in Fig.5.Fig.5: Security Concerns in (Fig source -internet)4.2.1 FRONT-END SENSORS AND EQUIPMENTFront end perceptual layer sends data from different sensors and RFID reader to different modules of M2M device. This methodology involves the machines security with business implementation & node connectivity (Zhao et al. , 2011). Perception nodes are general categories in the absence of monitoring sensors. An intruder may get easy access and damage these devices and their data. This results in denial of services attack.4.2.2 NETWORKNetwork plays an important role because it provides a more comprehensive interconnection capability, effectualness, thriftiness of connection and an authentic quality of service in IoTs. Large number of machines in network sends enormous data that leads to network congestion, large number of nodes and groups in lOTs results in denial of service attacks (Gang et al. , 2011).4.2.3 BACK-ENDBack-end of IoT systems form the gateway and middleware. It requires high security requirements, gathering, examining sensor data in real time to increase business intelligence. The security of IoT system has seven major standards viz; privacy protection, access control, user authentication, communication layer security, data integrity, data confidentiality and availability at any time.5. IoT STANDARDIZATIONTo make communication between object and system a good standardization should be implanted. For the standardization of IoT, the simplified application collaborates through standardized interface of the application development ecosystem. It should have smart behavior through analytics capability and carries standardized data exchange format and interface.Standardizing properly ensure that the processes, procedures and interfaces should be private and confidentiality of user is maintained. There should be expandability in applicable device ecosystem and reduction in deployment time with standards compliant devices executing applications requiring little or no customization. The system should provide an ecosystem that readily allows applications to share information and experiences.5.1 STANDARDIZATION TECHNIQUESFor making communication between object and system a good standardization should be proper implanted. Organizations like Wi-Fi alliance, the Bluetooth special interest group (SIG) & Zig Bee alliance ensures the interoperability of devices with wireless connectivity.5.1.1 ZigBee ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) is operated in 2.4GHz ISM band(Perera et al. , 2013), but it supports the 868MHz and 916MHz ISM bands. ZigBee can reach a data of up to 250kbps while short active phases separated by long power down intervals enable several years of operation with a single coin cell. According to ZigBee, the protocol layer above the 802.15.4 data link layer provides application profile. It is successful in smart grid applications. 5.1.2 Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is basically based on the IEEE 802.11 standard (Perera et al. , 2013). The standard was designed as a wireless replacement for the widely used, cable-based IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard. It deals with the data link layer of a LAN and can be integrated into the TCP/IP stack. In Wi-Fi, TCP/IP is used for Internet connectivity.5.1.3 Bluetooth SIGThe Bluetooth SIG has introduced a new architecture that supports a set of educational tools. These tools help developers to quickly create Internet gateways for Bluetooth products. Bluetooth gateway allows Bluetooth sensor to transmit data to the cloud and retransmit back again. Bluetooth architecture extends the potential functionality of the IoT. In this a person has the ability to monitor and control fixed Bluetooth sensors from a remote location. For example like turning off our home lights while we are on vacation or unlocking our front door for a pet sitter.6. ConclusionPaper discusses invention and significance of IoT. An extensive survey is done to explain IoT application areas. Paper focuses on standardization techniques implanted to maintain privacy and confidentiality of IoT device user. 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