ABSTRACT individuals have deficient supply of water. Water

ABSTRACT

This
paper discusses about the primary issues in regards to water shortage and the
qualities of antimony in connection to its conduct and destiny in common water.
It is hard to verify that whether the water is in reality rare or whether it is
accessible yet not utilized as a part of an appropriate way. What’s more, look
into demonstrates that water is very rare in thickly populated zone where
individuals have deficient supply of water. Water will be a noteworthy
imperative for agrarian creation, ventures and for some different purposes in a
coming year. Water contamination is likewise a noteworthy issue, which we
confront now daily. Water sullying prompts many water borne ailments. Water
scarcity with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the genuine dangers to human
wellbeing. The main objective of this article is to feature the real issues and
effects of water shortage. This paper will help the specialists and agencies to
start the new approaches and projects identified with water shortage. So we
should deliver the issues identified with water shortage, and concentrating on
its general generation. What’s more, we additionally comprehend that without
water there can be no life on earth as we see in physical world. What’s more,
the paper additionally proposes measures for making mindfulness among the
general population in less created regions .And to aware individuals about
sensible utilization of water.

Key words: water
scarcity, water shortage, water
contamination, water sullying, water borne

INRODUCTION

Water is a gifted element from
God. About 2/3 of earth’s surface is covered by water. It is not only
responsible for life but also for socio-economic development. In short “water
is not for life, water is life”. But due to the continuous human disturbance on
earth water resources are depleting drastically. Higher rate of increasing
population, industrial and agricultural use are putting stress on water day by
day.

The increasing scarcity of water
is nowadays a well recognized problem. According to World Commission on
Environment and Development, approximately 80 countries with 40 % of the world
population are already suffering from serious water shortages. At present most
of the countries are increasing food imports because the agricultural sectors
are not able to produce sufficient food to fill the existing food gaps. The
increasing food gaps are creating serious challenges. The growing water
scarcity and misuse and management of the available water resources are
nowadays major threats to sustainable development for the various sectors,
especially domestic, agricultural and industrial. Today, most of the countries
are suffering from water shortages.

Availability
of  Water
As indicated by the World Bank, Pakistan turned into a water focused on nation
(1,700 cubic meters for every capita every year) around the year 2000.3
According to an administration source, Pakistan achieved 1,700 m3 in 1992 and
turned into a water-short nation, and after that declined further to 1,500 m3
in 2002.4 Water shortage (1,000 m3 for each capita every time of inexhaustible
supply) is normal in around 2035.5 However, a United Nations Development
Program source gives Pakistan’s flow water accessibility as 1,090 m3 for every
capita per year.6 This is on the grounds that the expressions “water
deficiency” and “water shortage” are frequently utilized
conversely—while both utilize the 1,000 m3 for each capita estimation as a
benchmark, “lack” is an outright term and shortage is a relative
idea.

Water Crisis and Its Impacts in Pakistan

Moving around the fire isn’t the answer for any
issue. One should attempt to see underneath the surface all together and to get
a handle on a thought regarding the essential issue. In spite of a surge of
solid words and declarations made by the past legislatures of Pakistan, nothing
has been done appropriately with a specific end goal to counter the water
emergency in the nation. Or maybe the circumstance has taken a quantum jump for
the more regrettable. Water is a wellspring of life yet tragically, Pakistan is
in the grasp of its shortage, which has exasperates the entire national life.
The irritating emergency is perplexing people in general personality and, lamentably,
it has impressively contributed towards stressing national concordance and
there are no indications of holding over this bleak circumstance.

With the progressive exhaustion of water assets, the
unstable circumstance is additionally disillusioned by the lack of
precipitation which is so basic for the horticulture area. This breaking down
state has highlighted the sentiments of hardship among the littler regions.
Abusing the circumstance the hard liners in the territories have left on
lashing Punjab with of history. The present dry season in Sindh and Baluchistan
has smashed the economy and farming of the nation. Back in fifties, Quetta was
viewed as Pakistan’s prime plantation, which gave organic product to the nation
and for send out too. However, now many developing zones are in basic
circumstance, debilitated by finished utilization of ground water and normal
dry seasons.

The disturbing drop in water level has likewise
prompted a genuine shortage in hydal control. Also, these are honest to
goodness worries if the circumstance waits on for quite a while more, the
vitality emergency would extend when the dilute level goes advance in Mangla
and Tarbela. Water lack has gravely influenced the agrarian segment of Pakistan
which vigorously relies upon agro based economy. The agrarian terrains of the
Punjab and Sindh, generally rely upon waterway water system in light of the
fact that in a few regions underground water is salty. Introduce water
emergency, if permitted to proceed, would diminish the creation of wheat, rice
and sugarcane and so on. Quickly water emergency in the nation has spread
profound concern. The deficiency is undermining to make starvation like
condition crosswise over Pakistan.

Water shortage creates a perplexing web of effects
that traverses numerous segments of the economy and achieves well past the zone
encountering physical dry season. Pakistan has been gotten in the same overall
national existence of the nation. The immediate effects of water emergencies in
Pakistan have lessened harvest, extend arrive, woodland efficiency and water
level. Then again, it has expanded animals, natural life and people death rates
and harmed the untamed life and fish living spaces. Immediate or essential effects
turns out to be diffuse to the point that it’s extremely hard to concoct
monetary appraisals of harms.

There are additionally some social effects of water
emergency in Pakistan, which have for the most part included open wellbeing,
medical issues, and clashes between the areas over water use. It has
additionally lessened the personal satisfaction. Natural misfortunes in
Pakistan are the aftereffect of harms to plant and creature species, untamed
life, air and water quality, debasement of scene quality, the loss of
biodiversity and the social disintegration, caused by the dry season. The
demography of Pakistan has likewise changed because of movement of influenced
populace to the effectively finished populated urban areas. It might build
weight on the social framework of the nation which may improve neediness,
social distress and ethnicity.

The beginning of the issue is a reality all around
recognized that water emergency is the national attending of our own making. We
were completely aware of the way that our salvation lay just in building dams,
yet we advantageously disregarded the issue and remained absolutely unmindful
of the desperate results. All our past governments kept enduring on the strings
of building the Kalabagh Dam, however surrendering to the weight of personal
stakes, the issue was each time retired. If there should be an occurrence of
our powerlessness to withstand weight saving working of Kalabagh, on the other
hand, we could have concentrated our consideration on development of littler dams.
We didn’t do the either. Henceforth, the present disaster overall involvement with
governments creating and dispensing rare assets has been a disappointment, as
showed by the Soviet Union’s crumple. So also government control of water in
Pakistan, as in many districts, has been incapable at distributing water to
where it is generally required. Neither has it prevailing with regards to
guaranteeing the practical plan, development and waste framework nor in
averting soil saltiness and ecological corruption.

Botch underway and conveyance of
this significant asset has exacerbated the issue. Numerous open interests in
water system and seepage were improperly outlined, extravagantly built and are
as a rule ineffectively worked and kept up which has brought about an extreme
water emergency in the nation. The general conduct of the majority towards
water as to take it a free ware is one of the fundamental driver about its wastage. They couldn’t care
less I for squandering billions of gallons of water, every day without
utilizing it. In addition a colossal measure of water is squandered through
permeation which itself has caused shortage of water in its accessibility for
farming grounds. Then again the administration of Pakistan did a little to overcome
and to deal with the current and the coming serious shortage of water which has
brought about the type of dry spell in many parts of the nation.

Water being an important
essential fixing, it should be spared at all cost for the survival of human and
creature life. Almost certainly, it is our holy obligation to do as such. To
beat the current water emergencies, legitimate utilization of water in agrarian
segment is required which requires new water yet a tremendous measure of water
is squandered before achieving the yield. The aggregate accessibility of water
system can be expanded by building water supplies and tapping the ground
potential and better administration, which goes for diminishing the travel or
movement misfortunes and advancing enhanced agronomical practices on the
homestead.

It is likewise recommended that
shape the water streaming out to the ocean of which a generous amount can be
dealt with building dam of wastage of water from trench through permeation can
be spared by covering them. The expanding issue of accessibility of
unadulterated drinking water can be taken care of by boring increasingly tube
wells in the provincial zones particularly in Thar and Balochistan. Also
reasonable drinking water can be acquired in beach front regions by introducing
minimal effort water treatment plants that utilization sun oriented vitality
for the desalination of ocean water the treated water can be provided to
seaside territories by pumping stations. The procedure not just guarantees the
accessibility of plentiful clean drinking water, yet in addition gives work to
local people. The salt acquired from this procedure can be utilized as a part
of business and modern applications.

 

Drinking
Water and Sanitation System
  Drinking water is the basic necessity
of human life. Research conducted in different provinces of Pakistan shows that
84% of the population lack drinking water. It shows that most of the people in
rural areas, urban areas and in slums suffered from this problem. There are no
proper toilet systems in these areas. Women are mostly affected and they drop
out school because there are no proper toilet systems in schools. Supply of
drinking water is the constitutional responsibility of the provincial
government of the state. In order to maintain proper sanitation system and to
improve the qualities of good drinking water we have to spread awareness among
the people. We have to make efforts to run awareness campaigns in different
areas especially in less developed areas.

Waste Water Treatment

There should be proper wastewater
treatment plant in different areas of Pakistan. In which wastewater receives
primary treatment. In rural areas there is no existence of wastewater treatment
leading to pollution of surface water and ground water.

Health Issues

  In developing countries four-fifth of all
diseases is caused by dirty water. The lack of water forces people of under
developed countries to drink unhygienic water which is the main cause of
cholera, dysentery, these diseases are caused by parasites found in water
contaminated by sick human faeces some diseases are also caused by lack of
nutrients and electrolytes in water, which mostly causes diarrhea and vomiting.
According to study it is found that un-educated individuals tend to drink
contaminated water when there is shortage of safe drinking water. People are
not even well educated on the treatment of these diseases 43% people don’t
treat water which they collect from rivers or streams. From all the data
collected it is observed that there is lack of knowledge on water borne diseases.

Problems Related To
Water in Pakistan

   In Pakistan water
associated problems are the key challenges. 
Pakistan’s economy is fully dependent on agriculture and 90 % of
agriculture is fully dependent on irrigation a well as for drinking. Every year
about 73% of water is extracted which is putting high pressure on renewable
water resources. But due to lack of proper management 27.2 million people don’t
have access to safe water. Every year 3900 children die from diarrhea due to
unsafe water.
  In Pakistan, with reference to the
record of 2014, the change in supply and demand was 11%. But by 2025, it is
likely to rise up to 35%. in 1951, the water availability was 5,000 cubic
meters per capita while current water availability is 1,038 cubic meters per
capita.
In sub urban cities of Pakistan where development and growing investment in real estate
has seen the growth of settlements and here little consideration is given to
water required by these novel settlements. Consequently the sole source of
water on which they remain reliant on is the Rawal dam which is already a
strained source. So, besides the lack of dams, the outdated and poorly
maintained distribution apparatuses, indicate the high risk of water shortage
in place of unsustainable urban extension

Impact of Water Shortage

 
There are following impacts
of water shortage.

1.     
Due
to water shortage productive land is converted to unproductive land.

2.     
Due
to shortage of water the capacity of generating of hydro power energy reduce.

3.     
Due
to lack of surface water individuals now draw ground water that causes the
water table down and result rising in saline water.

4.     
Water
shortage effects national harmony, as it can cause conflict between and
provinces.

RECOMMENDATIONS
 1. To save water means to save a
life because living is all linked up with water. For example food is dependent
upon agriculture and agriculture is dependent on irrigation. Therefore proper
management should be done for water security to secure life. Proper distinction
should be made between drinking water and for other purposes as due to same
water supply system too much water is wasted on washing and other activities.
2. Water storage reservoirs ought to be augmented and effective
water strategies should be made for harvesting seepage as well as runoff. The
appropriate use of Irrigation water and Reusing waste water for irrigation
should be done.

3. New dams should be constructed
for the storage of water more over every year water consumptions statistic
should be made to have a ‘water vision’ for future also. Government should ban
the borings (pumping of water) in homes as it is drastically decreasing the
water table.

4. Instead of issuing tax on land,
there should be tax on water with separate supply of drinking water and for
other purposes; distinct ratio of tax should also be issued.
5. Residents of areas which dump
waste near water sources should be fined. Slum colonies near or on streams
running through cities need to be moved. Their inhabitants must be provided
with
employment by the Government and relocated. Organized construction of small,
lined dams
must be undertaken in order to harvest rainwater for storage.
6. As we know Islamiyat is a
compulsory subject at the primary and secondary levels. Sustainable use of
water is a theme significantly highlighted mutually in the Quran
and Sunnah. Under the heading of Islamiyat practicable sacred values
should be introduced to young children at an initial phase.
They should be educated how the Prophet (PBUH) compared rivers of water to
those of gold and
taught his companions to limit the water they used for ‘wudhu. The
responsibilities of a Muslim regarding his environment should be explored and
deliberated as slice of the course likewise at degree level a
prominent discipline on water management should be introduced,
predominantly in zones such as KPK and AJK.

CONCLUSION

Water,
a gifted and life sustaining element is becoming scare due to its irrational
use. due to water shortage and contamination people are facing problems.
contaminated water is a threat to the hygiene. as per facts and figures 27.2
million people don’t have access to safe water. every year 3900 children die
from diarrhea due to unsafe water. Water shortage have drastic impacts on the
whole ecosystem and also on the economy.
So to overcome the water allied problems proper management policies along with
awareness campaigns should be arranged.