1. X-rays and MRIs are only two
technologies that have been created through atomic research. X-rays are a
high-energy form of electromagnetic radiation and can easily pass through soft
tissues. MRIs use low energy waves, magnets and properties of the hydrogen nucleus
to generate images. However, the possibilities of being able view even more parts
of the body at different magnitudes may be possible. Increased funding for atomic
research can provide new technologies that can help detect genetic diseases
such as cancers, viruses and other life threatening conditions. The technologies
would be able to give Doctors the visibility to help diagnose, track and assess
patient’s health. This would improve the quality of life for Ontarians which would
contribute to a healthier population.
A reason why funding should not be
increased is because it is not accessible to all Ontarians and the well-off portion
of the population are more likely to have scans such as the MRI done. This
would defeat the aims of increasing funding because innovations that could be
made would not be utilized to contributing to improve the health of the overall
2. Ultraviolet has shorter wavelengths and
has more energy than visible light. The 2
distinct colours in line spectra are caused by 2 electron transitions. When an electron
absorbs energy from some external source, it jumps to a higher orbit or energy
level. The nucleus will eventually attract the electron back to the lower level
and then the energy that the electron initially absorbed will be emitted. For
ultraviolet energy, the electron transition must be greater than that of visible
light and the electron should be a greater distance between orbits of the atom.
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
3d10 4p6 5s2 4d2
b) Zr4+ exists because the ion
is trying to achieve a stability therefore, electrons must be lost from the
outer shells specifically 4d and 5s to be more similar a noble gas. The easiest
way to be similar to a noble gas, would be to lose four electrons rather than
trying to gain double that amount.
c) When the Zr atom and Zr ion is compared,
it is clear the Zr atom will be more reactive and unstable because it does not
have a full stable octet like the ion. The Zr atom has 2 electrons on it’s
outer shell while the Zr ion has filled stable octet and has similar electron
arrangement as the element Kr.
4. Orbital Overlap NH3
5a) insert pic
6a) insert pic
b) The name of hybrid orbital found in NH3
is sp3. Three orbitals are bonded and one orbital has
a solitary pair of electrons.
c) Carbon has four electrons on the outer
shell with equal repulsion while Nitrogen has five outer electrons. Nitrogen contains
four orbits which includes one having two electrons and the other 3 having one
electron each. Carbon has three regions that include high electron density
while Nitrogen has four.
i)CaBr2 will have ionic bonding
because electronegativity of Bromine is much greater than that of Calcium
ii)Na3N CaBr2 will
have ionic bonding because electronegativity of nitrogen is much greater than
that of Sodium
iii) CH4 will be non-polar covalent
bonding because there is little difference in their electronegativity
c) Na3N> CaBr2>
We always find compounds containing metals
in this ranking order in ionic compounds with the greatest electronegativity.
8a) insert pic
b) The shape will pyramidal since it has iodine
is attached to 3 bond pairs and 1 lone pair
c) It is polar because the oxygen’s negative
charge and iodine’s positive charge do not cancel each other out, so its remains
to oppositely charged ends. Iodine is the positive pole and oxygen is the more negative
pole. The iodine pair of electrons electrons repel the oxygen electron pairs
resulting in the pyramidal shape.
9a) insert pic
c) It is a polar molecule because the
compound remains to have oppositely charged ends so the dipole did not cancel
out. Chlorine is the negative pole and hydrogen is the positive pole.
10. The bond atoms in these molecules are
not identical because the lone pairs in water repel the bonded pairs which
decreases the bond angle. The lone pair have a greater repulsion force to repel
the 2 bonding hydrogen atoms, this causes the regular tetrahedral angle to be distorted
have a decreased bond angle.
11a) Carbon dioxide is suitable because it
removes stains and oils from fabrics while water alone cannot do that. Carbon
dioxide’s polar covalent bonds help it easily remove stains and oils
b) Liquid carbon dioxide is a suitable
solvent because it occurs naturally in the environment and is relatively
non-polluting when compared to dry-cleaning solvents which are horrible for the
environment. Some Dry-cleaning solvents have been even found to cause cancer.
Another reason why Carbon dioxide would be a great solvent is because it does
not change the shape or elasticity of clothes when washed which is a major
concern of people using washing machines.
A consequence of using carbon dioxide as solvent
is that it is very costly when compared to our current machines. Setting up the
equipment and teaching consumers how to handle the solvent will cost money.
Also, there are other solvents that can remove stains more quickly than liquid
12a) London forces are present in all
molecules like halogens. As the size and number of electrons from Fluorine to
Iodine increase, the London Forces will increase in strength. As the number of electrons
increase in the chart, the easier it is from the atom to be polarized and London
Forces get stronger. The greater the intermolecular force, the more energy is
needed to to change molecules from liquid to gas as the intermolecular forces
increase. The reason why the boiling points increased from -88 to 184 is
because the London Forces have increased too.
The London force is directly related to the
number of electrons.
c) Astatine will be approximately 335
13. Ethane and Methanol has similarities in
their molar mass but their boiling points are vastly different which is caused due
to their differences in their hydrogen bonding. Ethane, a gas, does not form hydrogens bonds or even ionic
bonds. However, since Methanol is polar and has hydrogen bonding since it is an
alcohol, it results in a higher boiling point.
14a) The cable must be made out of a strong
durable material to withstand different temperatures, objects it might come
into contact with, strong winds etc. This is because the cable will be covering
a long distance and the temperatures of space near the Earth can be as hot as 120
degrees Celsius and there are areas that have extreme cold in orbit. Another
physical property the cable should have is be light in weight so that it is not
weighed down by gravity which would cause it to have problems remaining
extended into space. A chemical property that should have is to be made up of
stable compounds so it does not react with elements. We would not want the
cable to reacting in an area such as the ozone layer to produce new compounds when
it reacts with the ozone which could cause cable to erode.
b) I believe covalent network solids would
be best for cable. I believe this because it has a very high melting point
which would help the cable withstand high extreme temperatures without melting.
Also, the cable would be hard causing it to be durable. It would also be insoluble
to water and organic which adds to longevity of remaining strong through possible
natural disasters such as tornados. Lastly, the solid would be a poor conductor of electricity which
compromises its ability to be reactive.